A banking app is a specific product with particular demands for performance and security. Even tiny gaps and short downtimes are critical because sensitive data may become vulnerable. To ensure smooth operation, the team carefully selects the tech stack and builds app architecture. When the product is ready, QA engineers set about testing. This post will consider the latter in more detail. It will talk about the nature of banking app testing and share how it goes in our company.
What Is Banking Domain?
If you google banking app testing, you will likely come across the notion of a banking domain. Let’s figure out what it is and why understanding this concept is vital for a tester. In short, a banking domain is a set of all the activities and tools needed to provide financial services within a given organization. You can think of a banking domain as a single system that combines internal processes designed for staff members and external services aimed at the end-user. Typically, a banking domain consists of the following components:
- Market segment – main business lines the bank undertakes (e.g., consumer banking, retail banking, investment banking, etc.)
- Target customers – individual and corporate clients using banking products.
- Banking products – all operations that generate income for the bank (loans, deposits, investments, etc.)
- Sales campaign – the ways of banking products delivery to clients (online and offline)
- Business processes – internal and external processes that take place as the bank operates.
- Technologies – software and hardware technologies used to do banking.
To test the app, you will need to learn the entire banking ecosystem and gather enough information about each service you check.
Challenges Of Banking App Testing
First, let’s understand how banking app differs from other software and what challenges the testers face.
A banking app usually consists of several layers or tiers:
- A server where the app logic is implemented
- A database where user data is stored
- A payment processor that takes care of financial transactions
- A client interface that accepts and redirects users inputs
The tester’s job is to ensure the system works smoothly as a single whole. They run various tests through the mobile app and report bugs to responsible devs: server, front-end, database, etc.
Complex Business Workflows
A banking app handles many business processes, each consisting of several stages and parts. For example, opening a bank account involves many steps – from receiving a client’s request and checking the data to verifying ID and opening an account (you can see a detailed scheme below). The tester needs to confirm that all stages work correctly and the workflow runs without gaps.
Real-Time And Batch Processing
A banking app deals with a vast amount of users, data, and transactions. It processes thousands of operations per second, so it is crucial to test it at peak loads. Testers must ensure the app runs as quickly as possible with the existing number of clients and processes and has sufficient headroom to expand the customer base and functionality.
A banking app interacts with many external services. Therefore, testers need to do API testing to ensure a third-party connection is working fine. Also, they often check each data entry manually. For example, when we implemented utility bills in the Ecobank app, our QA reviewed each address in the list because public utility services provided us with the database in an unreadable form.
Variety Of Devices
Users can run the app on many smartphones and tablets and expect it to work glitchless everywhere. Besides, they count on data synchronization when logging in from different devices. QA experts must check every device and ensure the data is updated in time.
Steps Of Banking Domain App Testing
Banking domain testing is a multi-stage procedure that requires careful preparation and an in-depth understanding of the system. Here are the main steps that usually take place:
- Requirements analysis. The business analyst (BA) studies documents and collects requirements. They collaborate with a trusted bank representative to draw up a detailed work plan.
- Requirements review. BA, PM, and team lead review the listed requirements and make corrections if necessary. Next, they submit a draft and pass it to BA to develop a final paper.
- Test plan preparation. QA studies business requirements and prepares a test plan. They discuss it with the tech lead and set about testing.
- Database testing. It includes checking app data validity, integrity, and loading speed. The tester needs a deep knowledge of the database procedures, functions, indexes, keys, and sound practical SQL.
- Unit&Integration testing. First, the tester checks each unit separately and then tests their interaction with each other. A tested unit is usually a single app function or procedure.
- Functional testing. QA examines each app function to make sure it works as it should be.
- Performance testing. This type of testing involves checking the app under normal and extreme loads. The QA needs to simulate various situations to get ready for any force majeure.
- Security testing. Experienced testers apply a variety of techniques to ensure the banking app is safe enough. The most common security testing types are vulnerability and security scanning, penetration testing, and risk assessment.
- Usability&Acceptance testing. It shows the level of app ergonomics and assesses how well it is prepared for users with special needs.
Banking App Test Cases Examples
We’ve just discussed the steps of banking domain testing. Now let’s look at some samples of test cases that we apply at different testing stages.
- Check if the data is appropriately structured
- Check if data fields have the correct format
- Check if values of computed fields are correctly calculated
- Check if each table has all needed constraints: primary keys, foreign keys, and unique indexes.
- Сheck if there is duplicate data in the table.
- Check if null values are accepted where they should be not.
- Check if data is written correctly to the table when the user creates or updates it through the app (e.g., creates/ updates profile info).
- Check app behavior when the database server is not working.
- Check if previous data is kept if an operation fails.
- Check the database backup regularity.
- Check if new accounts/roles/branches are created correctly with valid data.
- Check how an app behaves if the accounts/roles/branches are created/modified with invalid data.
- Check login functionality with valid and invalid data.
- Check the app functions from the user’s point of view (whether the balance is updated after withdrawal or crediting, whether regular payments are saved and performed at a specific time, etc.)
- Check the app functions from the admin’s point of view (whether bulk messaging can be sent and analyzed, whether support requests are properly handled, etc.)
- Check app performance when many users use the same or different functionalities.
- Check app performance when the battery is low, medium, high, or charging.
- Check app performance at different times.
- Check app performance when the Internet is slow.
- Check app performance when the Internet goes down during the transaction.
- Check app performance when the Internet changes from low to high.
- Check how the app responds to multiple invalid logins.
- Check if the “Forgot password” option allows easy account details recovery.
- Check if password requirements are strong enough.
- Check the encryption of user ID and password.
- Check if the app uses a secure protocol, like HTTPS.
- Check if the password hides under dots or other signs when the user enters it in the app.
- Check if the user gets logged out after a certain period of inactivity.
- Check how the app responds to cache clearance.
- Check if navigation is intuitive.
- Check if all visual elements are designed in the same style.
- Check if all terms are named the same on all app pages (e.g., “recurring charges” or “regular payments”).
- Check if all pages, links, and buttons have clear titles.
- Check if error and warning messages are self-explanatory.
- Check if essential fields have placeholders and tips.
How To Improve Testing Results?
Do you want to test your app yourself or outsource it? In either case, these tips will help do it in a more productive way:
- Test regularly. Especially after app updates. This way, you can quickly fix bugs if they appear.
- Take control. Participate in all testing team activities: collecting requirements, reviewing them, composing a testing scenario, etc.
- Involve real users. They will help you get the most reliable results, so strive to achieve them.
- Use manual and automated testing. Automation will save you time, but manual testing is necessary to validate the UI/UX design and other aspects described in our article.
- Use real devices. Emulators cannot wholly replace testing on real mobile devices.
- Collect feedback. Target audience opinion will help improve your app.
Testing is an integral part of the development lifecycle. It ensures the software runs smoothly or nearly smoothly when entering the real world. Banking application testing covers various techniques and test cases that scan the app’s usability, performance, and security. It is vital to polish all the nuances and ensure the important data will not be lost if the server suddenly crashes or the Internet goes down. Besides, it is necessary to verify the app is highly intuitive for all user groups.
At Softensy, we specialize in the development of fintech and banking apps. Our ongoing project Ecobank runs on iOS and Android devices and has a lot of users in Ukraine. We are constantly updating and expanding the app features. Each change is thoroughly tested before release to ensure the users receive a functional and usable product. If you plan to outsource software development or need expert advice, feel free to contact our managers. They will consult for free and suggest the best solution for your business.